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Diesel engine

This advice is for vehicles fitted with an external engine stop device. The steering lock, if fitted, will need to be disconnected.

Disconnect the engine stop from the fuel pump. Place the lever on the fuel pump to RUN position and secure.

If the engine is hot, start it by shorting out the starter solenoid (see above). If it is cold connect the wire from the positive (+) side of battery to the glow plug terminals for a maximum of 10 seconds. Start the engine by shorting out the starter solenoid.

Starter motor jammed

Select top gear and rock the vehicle back and forth until the pinion releases itself.

Worn battery terminals

If a battery terminal is damaged or worn so badly that the battery lead clamp can’t be properly tightened and electrical contact cannot be made, remove the clamp and wrap a thin strip of brass, lead or tin around the terminal and replace the clamp. If this doesn’t work, try placing a piece of wood or metal (nail) between the battery lead clamp and the terminal post before tightening.

Braking system
Removing brake drums

There may be a need to remove a brake drum out in the field if it gets chocked up with mud or fine gravel. This can be an almost impossible process if you don’t know how your brake system works. Different makes of 4WD have different systems so it is not possible to describe here how they all work. This is something you really need to have investigated beforehand and you may have to seek advice from a brake expert on how to deal with your particular 4WD’s brakes.

Most brake drums will end up with a lip so you will have to back off the adjuster to be able to get the drum off, which can be a difficult process even in a workshop.

Adjusters can have a right hand thread on one side and a left hand thread on the other, so figure out what is what. Do you have to stick a screwdriver through a little hole in the backing plate to turn the adjuster – and do they go up or down to back them off? Check at home before you need to know!

Broken brake line

Flatten the end of the damaged brake line on the master cylinder side of the break and bend it back on itself twice, crimping the end tightly by hammering or with pliers.

Check that there are no leakages of fluid in the system by pressing hard on the brake pedal a few times, then checking the crimped end. Bleed the system. The vehicle now has braking on only three wheels so drive very cautiously because it will brake unevenly.

Loss of brake fluid

As a last resort you can top it up with water. Do not attempt to use ordinary oil or any petroleum products, because this will damage brake rubbers. At the very first opportunity completely renew the fluid in the braking system.

Suspension, axles and wheels
Broken rear axle

For a four-wheel drive vehicle fitted with full floating axles, remove both rear axles and replace the drive flanges. Remove the drive shaft to the disabled differential. Drive on front differential.

Broken front axle

Remove both drive flanges. Cover the exposed end with rag or plastic to keep dirt and dust out. Remove the drive shaft to the disabled differential. Drive on the rear differential.

Broken wheel studs

If all the wheel studs of a wheel have been sheared off, then remove one stud from each of the other three wheels and fit to the disabled wheel hub. Drive steadily.

Removing a stuck tyre from rim

Use your high-lift jack to break the bead. Alternatively, place the tyre flat on the ground and drive your vehicle over it. This may need to be repeated several times.

Broken main leaf of rear spring

If the main leaf of a spring assembly breaks it is usually at or just before one of the spring’s eyes. The unbroken half of the spring needs to be located at the fixed spring shackle, regardless of whether the fixed shackle is located towards the front or the rear of the vehicle. This will allow the axle housing to be held in its central position by using rope, chain or heavy wire.

If the spring breaks at the eye located at the fixed shackle, then the spring will need to be removed and reversed.

If the spring assembly is unequal about the axle housing, and the spring requires reversing, then the axle housing will need repositioning along the spring assembly, so that it can be secured in its original (central) location.

The broken portion of the spring is allowed to rub against the swinging spring shackle or the underside of the chassis rail.

The axle’s vertical movement will be limited by axle bumper stop. If there is no bumper stop, then a piece of timber can be placed between the top the axle housing and the underside of chassis. Secure it in position. Drive very steadily.

Broken spring centre bolt

Lash the axle housing in its original central location using either rope, chains or heavy wire or find a suitable nut and bolt in your collection and file the head to suit the locating hole in the axle casing. Drive very steadily.

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